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American Council on Exercise (ACE)-sponsored Study Reveals Best and Worst

San Diego State University researchers rank 13 of the top ab-strengthening exercises (including infomercial equipment) using electromyography equipment to measure results. Crunches on an exercise ball rated best overall, but even crunches work, tell your member to just do it!

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Americans are tired of empty promises when it comes to turning flabby tummies into stronger, flatter, leaner abdominals.

For those willing to put a little effort into their workout, a new study sponsored by the American Council on Exercise (ACE)the workout watchdog reveals the best and worst methods for getting definite results.
Captain's Chair
Not all exercises are effective. The captain's chair (above) scored highest in strengthening both the abs and obliques. The ab rocker scored the lowest in both categories.

The study, led by Peter Francis, Ph.D., at the Biomechanics Lab at San Diego State University, compared 13 of the most common abdominal exercises, some involving equipment, and ranked them from most to least effective. Subjects in the study included 30 healthy women and men, ages 20-45, ranging from occasional to daily exercisers.

They were put through a battery of exercises, including the traditional crunch, modified crunches, partial body-weight exercises and exercises using both home and gym exercise equipment. Muscle activity was monitored during each exercise using electromyography equipment.

Each of the 13 exercises were ranked for muscle stimulation in the rectus abdominus (long, flat muscle extending the length of the front of the abdomen) and the obliques (long, flat muscles extending along the sides of the abdomen at an angle).

Overall, the top three abdominal exercises were bicycle maneuver, captain's chair and crunch on exercise ball. (See below for full list of results.)

According to the researchers, although crunches on an exercise ball generated less activity in the obliques and rectus abdominus than some of the other exercises, the exercise also generated significantly less activity in the thigh muscle, making it more targeted to the abs and the best overall exercise.

Of the three pieces of informercial equipment tested, the Torso Track faired better than the Ab Rocker. The Torso Track was only marginally more effective than the traditional crunch. However, a significant number of subjects reported lower-back discomfort while using the Torso Track. The Ab Roller was no more effective than the traditional crunch, while the Ab Rocker was up to 80% less effective. These results are consistent with ACE's 1997 study of popular ab exercise products.

The results of this study support ACE's long-time opinion that it is not necessary to spend upward of $150 on a piece of exercise equipment to strengthen abs. ACE recommends that if a consumer is going to invest in a piece of equipment, make it a high-quality exercise ball, which retails at approximately $30, depending on size.

For best results, Dr. Francis recommends choosing several of the top-rated exercises and doing a five minute exercise session daily. If one exercise is uncomfortable, he says to try others until you come up with a variety that meet your needs. This will help train different areas of the muscle and prevent boredom.

No matter which method is selected, strengthening the abs is essential for preventing injuries, maintaining good posture, alleviating lower back pain, and improving performance in other athletic pursuits.

San Diego State University/ACE Abdominal Study Results:

For strengthening the rectus abdominus, the 13 exercise were ranked most to least effective:

1. Bicycle maneuver
2. Captain's chair
3. Crunches on exercise ball
4. Vertical leg crunch
5. Torso Track
6. Long arm crunch
7. Reverse crunch
8. Crunch with heel push
9. Ab Roller
10. Hover
11. Traditional crunch
12. Exercise tubing pull
13. Ab Rocker


For strengthening the obliques, the 13 exercise were ranked most to least effective:

1. Captain's chair
2. Bicycle maneuver
3. Reverse crunch
4. Hover
5. Vertical leg crunch
6. Crunch on exercise ball
7. Torso Track
8. Crunch with heel push
9. Long arm crunch
10. Ab Roller
11. Traditional crunch
12. Exercise tubing pull
13. Ab Rocker


About ACE

The American Council on Exercise (ACE) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting the benefits of physical activity and protecting consumers against unsafe and ineffective fitness products and instruction. As the nation's workout watchdog, ACE conducts university-based research and testing that targets fitness products and trends. ACE sets standards for fitness professionals and is the world's largest nonprofit fitness certifying organization. For more information on ACE and its programs, call 800/825-3636 or log onto the ACE Web site at


Posted: 05/14/2001 Source: ACE

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